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On May 1, , United Video—which picked up the station's satellite retransmission rights from Southern Satellite Systems—uplinked the signal of WPIX to the Westar V satellite; [21] this was followed on July 1, , with its uplink of the signal of KTVT in Dallas—Fort Worth to the Satcom IV satellite, in a move undertaken by then-owner Gaylord Broadcasting to persuade cable providers that either already imported or were considering receiving the station's signal by microwave to begin transmitting the KTVT satellite feed.

On February 15, , Eastern Microwave Inc. EMI chose to encourage rather than compel cable systems in the Northeastern U. Both superstations were notable for being the first to have their signals scrambled from the outset, using the Videocipher II encryption system as well as the second and third EMI-delivered superstations to be encrypted, after having converted the WWOR satellite signal to an encrypted format in March This benefited the stations as it allowed them to continue paying for syndicated programming and advertising at local rates rather than those comparable to other national networks.

Even so, WGN would gradually switch to a more "active" stance in later years; Tribune began relaying the station's Chicago broadcast feed to United Video directly in , and eventually acquired a majority stake in the rechristened TV Guide Inc.

Tribune, as a whole, had also shifted from opposing satellite retransmission of its stations sans permission to weighing in the benefits of having its stations be distributed to a wide audience, to the point of being in strong opposition against the reimposition of the syndicated exclusivity rules and filing court proceedings against major sports leagues that sought to prevent game telecasts involving local NBA and Major League Baseball teams from being imported to other media markets.

During the s, the FCC began to severely restrict the importation of distant signals by larger CATV and cable systems, limiting their distribution to smaller-market and rural systems, based in part on the framework of the Carter Mountain Transmission Corp.

The FCC's denial of Carter's license renewal—because of its refusal to guarantee KWRB program duplication protection and the harm it would induce to the station, especially given Carter's refusal to offer the KWRB signal—was affirmed in a unanimous, three-judge decision by the U.

Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia on May 24, and a consideration refusal on the case by the U. Supreme Court on December Further expansion of "proto-superstation" signals came through federal court rulings on separate lawsuits filed in July by United Artists and WSTV Inc.

United Artists case. On March 31, , the FCC implemented a broad package of cable industry regulations passed that February, which included two rules pertaining to distant signal importation.

Among the implemented rules was the original incarnation of the Syndication Exclusivity Rules or "SyndEx" , which required cable providers to black out any syndicated programs carried on out-of-market stations if a television station exclusively holds the local broadcast rights to a particular program, even if the out-of-market station has the same owner as the program's claimant station.

The main difference between the original Syndex law and the version enacted in was that the blackout provisions applied to almost all programming, including special event programs distributed through syndication such as the Jerry Lewis MDA Telethon and the Easter Seals Telethon.

FCC soon began outlining a regulatory framework that allowed cable systems to import some out-of-market signals without running into copyright liability.

As such, the distant signal would act as a timeshare feed on a cable channel otherwise occupied by a local or out-of-market broadcast station during the occupying station's normal sign-off period.

The FCC Cable Television Bureau contended the formation of superstations was unlikely due to the absence of evidence that television stations economically benefited from cable carriage.

On October 1, , the U. Congress unanimously passed the Copyright Act of in separate Senate floor and House voice votes. The law provides cable systems with a compulsory license — which, under Section , also applies to "passive" passthrough satellite carriers, allowing them to retransmit "copyrighted programming from any over-the-air [television and radio] stations across the country [or, with range restrictions based on their distance from the U.

Copyright Office that is tasked with reviewing cable and other royalty rates every five years or sooner, if changes to program exclusivity or signal importation rules are made by the FCC and compensates eligible owners of a copyrighted program who submit a written claim to receive the mandatory royalty paid by the cable system.

The distribution of these superstations eventually caused conflicts between these stations and providers of similar, or identical, programming in local markets.

Among the earliest opponents to the emergence of superstations was the Motion Picture Association of America MPAA , which in , with the growing distribution of WTCG, petitioned the FCC to investigate the impact of and regulate superstations amid concerns over the potential financial losses for programs that MPAA member companies distributed to other television stations, which it posited would not be offset by royalty payments by cable systems.

On October 25, , the FCC implemented an "open entry" policy for satellite resale carriers wanting to feed local television stations to cable systems, a move that would pave the way for the emergence of additional superstations.

The policy also commenced review on FCC applications filed by four individual satellite carriers to authorize relay of other independent stations through the Satcom satellite fleet: [13].

Reactions to the FCC's "open entry" policy ruling among program distributors ranged from "anger to passive acceptance," with concerns that satellite-distributed superstations would not adequately compensate program syndicators based on the acquired program's national availability and provide difficulty for program sales once content was sold to broadcasters in smaller markets with superstation importation via cable.

While most superstations took on a passive stance on their distribution—programming to their local audience while benefiting tacitly from their extended distribution—a small number attempted to fight efforts to be redistributed; in March , Metromedia —which was fighting an FCC grant allowing ASN Inc.

ASN rebutted that KTTV had acknowledged the company was being authorized to redistribute its programming without distributor permission as the station could not do it on its own without shouldering liability.

The issue was never fully settled, however, as ASN Inc. The FCC repealed its remaining cable television regulations in a 4—3 vote on July 22, , eliminating its restrictions on the number of broadcast stations that cable systems could carry and syndication exclusivity protections for local television stations on the basis that "local stations are not adversely affected when a cable system offers subscribers signals from television stations in other cities.

The National Association of Broadcasters and Field Communications subsequently filed stay motions to the FCC which denied the requests until the Malrite suit was adjudicated, amid concerns over harm that the repeal could incur to station revenue and local viewership of syndicated programs if the same program could be duplicated by superstations and other distant signals.

The U. Interpretations of the copyright act also led to legal cases against superstation distributors. In April , Tribune Broadcasting filed a copyright infringement suit against United Video in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois , on grounds that United inserted teletext content from its Dow Jones business news service over the satellite feed's vertical blanking interval VBI during retransmissions of WGN's newscasts and other local programs in place of the teletext listings data that the station was relaying to United's Electronic Program Guide EPG service later Prevue Guide and now the entertainment-based Pop in violation of the Copyright Act's passive carrier rules.

The MPAA, the NAB despite its insistence that the CRT had limited to no authority to set rates outside the mandatory five-year interval , sports leagues and other copyright holders soon asked the Copyright Office to hike its royalty rates to compensate for the loss of the distant signal carriage and syndication exclusivity deregulation.

The increase met with backlash from cable industry executives and lobbyists, led by National Cable Television Association NCTA President Tom Wheeler , who were concerned that it would result in the remove of superstations and other distant signal and harm independent stations that are supported by the extended audience.

Dating back weeks prior to the deadline as some systems chose to remove imported signals after the CRT delayed the fee imposition , various distant signals experienced a combined loss of cable clearances, with WTBS, WGN-TV and WOR-TV making up half the defections with a combined loss of clearances.

Other cable-originated services benefited from the fee increases and distant signal defections, with the Cable Health Network CHN, which merged with Daytime in to form Lifetime experiencing the most growth; by March , 1.

The new policy—spurred in part by a study conducted by the Association of Independent Television Stations INTV , which provided evidence that programming duplication between superstations and local stations created significant ratings dilution for the latter group in certain time periods and a resulting significant loss of advertising revenue—not only allowed television stations to claim local exclusivity over syndicated programs even if the out-of-market station has the same owner as the station with that particular exclusive program and required cable systems to black out claimed programs; it also granted cable systems or carrier firms the ability to secure an agreement with the claimant station or a syndication distributor to continue carrying a claimed program through an out-of-market station, allowing some superstations to acquire partial or exclusive national cable rights to certain programs.

The law also closed the terrestrial loophole that allowed superstations like WGN and WTBS to continue paying local single market rates for programming acquisitions even as they were gaining national coverage, whilst selling that extended coverage to advertisers; this change made it so that other local stations which had their signals beamed to a satellite transponder — whether willingly or not — were charged appropriately for program content based on their actual national distribution, depending on arrangements with any given syndicator.

A major concern brought about by the new rules was that it would force cable systems to drop certain superstations altogether, rather than shoulder expenses that would be incurred with the resultant blackouts and any responsibilities for acquiring substitute programming, thereby denying viewers access to sporting events popular among subscribers who received those signals.

In preparation for the policy's implementation — which took effect on January 1, , after FCC-enforced delays in the regulation's rollout — some superstations decided to indemnify cable systems from potential blackouts by ensuring that, at least, some programs that could be subjected to local syndication exclusivity claims could continue to be shown to their national audience, so as to prevent the loss of sports access.

WTBS effectively limited the number of necessary blackouts or substitutions by licensing the majority of its programming for carriage on both its national and Atlanta area feeds.

Certain local programs carried by the station, such as public affairs and educational children's programs, were not carried on the TBS national feed, but these omissions were because those programs were strictly intended to fulfill local obligations for public affairs content.

United Video and Eastern Microwave respectively opted to devise standalone national feeds of WGN and WWOR, each incorporating an alternate schedule differing from the local broadcast signal to some degree—comprising both programs aired by the parent station for which the companies were able to secure the national retransmission rights including some held over from before the SyndEx law was enacted , and supplementary programs acquired specifically for the national cable feed to absolve any holes caused by exclusivity claims—as well as separate national advertising, and in the case of WWOR, local advertising sold by individual cable systems.

This would be achieved by "splitting" the signal, often requiring the use of a separate transponder to switch between the local feed and the alternate programming feed, so that certain programs viewed in the station's home market could be easily replaced with separate content that would only be shown over the national cable feed.

Confusingly for WWOR's national cable viewers, on-air promotions for programs not contracted to air nationally over the EMI Service were shown unaltered during simulcasts of programs aired on the New York signal.

This was not an issue with the WGN national feed, as United Video chose to substitute program promotions for shows airing on the Chicago signal that were not cleared on the national feed with those for the replacement shows exclusively seen on the latter, albeit still utilizing station logos and promotional graphics used by the Chicago broadcast feed.

To blunt potential subscriber complaints over widespread programming blackouts, many cable systems removed both regional and quasi-national superstations like WSBK, WPIX and KTVT as well as other distant signals that their satellite carriers were unable or unwilling to take immediate steps to ensure their programming was "Syndex-proofed" to avoid blackouts.

WGN and WTBS saw little negative impact to their distribution following the Syndex implementation, with WGN actually heavily benefiting from provider removals of other superstations including then sister station WPIX during the early s, allowing for further expansion of its distribution reach.

Most complaints over the removal of some regional and quasi-national superstations were because of the loss of access to coverage from regional professional sports teams such as the Boston Red Sox via WSBK, the Texas Rangers and Dallas Mavericks via KTVT and the New York Yankees via WPIX , leading some systems to resort to cherrypicking sports from the removed superstations to mollify subscribers and local politicians acceding to complaints from their constituents by pushing other cable systems to seek solutions to resume sporting events lost through the removal of those superstations.

The passage of the Satellite Home Viewer Act of on October 19, , extended the compulsory license to direct-to-home DTH satellite services, protecting distribution of broadcast signals to dish owners under existing copyright statutes.

The act's provisions primarily benefited so-called "affiliate superstations," provided that the distant network stations could only be distributed to "unserved households" that were unable to receive a local affiliate off-air.

Copyright laws pertaining to broadcast signal carriage by satellite providers were eventually overhauled through amendments to the Communications Act of that were added through the November implementation of the Satellite Home Viewer Improvement Act SHVIA , which allowed satellite providers to carry local broadcast signals on the Congressionally-suggested condition that the FCC develop rules protecting the sports, network and syndicated programming rights of local broadcasters.

The rules, which took effect on November 30 and also applied to satellite common carriers that uplinked and distributed the superstations, gave satellite providers at least four months to implement duplication protections for network and syndicated programs and 60 days notice to comply with sports and programming blackout requests.

An exemption to the Communications Act's retransmission consent statute in the SHVIA rules allowed satellite carriers to retransmit a superstation signal absent the station's prior written consent under the latter two aspects of the aforementioned FCC-defined "national superstation" criteria, provided that the service complies with the non-duplication, syndication exclusivity and sports blackout rules.

TBS was not covered under the SHVIA's de facto distant signal grandfathering clause as its national feed was considered a technically separate entity from its over-the-air parent feed in Atlanta.

The act's network non-duplication and Syndex rules were thought to negatively affect the distribution of WGN as its national feed was compliant with those restrictions.

Much of the appeal of superstations to viewers came from the national carriage of sporting events involving professional league teams that contracted their telecasts to the originating stations within home markets.

Some superstation operators like Ted Turner and former Tribune Company vice president John Madigan note a lack of corroborating evidence of any negative effects on game attendance and league revenue, suggesting that sports leagues have used superstation telecasts of their games as a scapegoat for financial problems incurred by the league caused by other factors such as the performance of certain teams and management issues.

This had an adverse effect on WGN, WWOR and WPIX, which each had news departments, as some of their respective newscasts would be subjected to substitutions if a sports event—particularly one shown during prime time —was preempted.

One of the first known legal efforts to challenge superstation telecasts of sports events came in April , when Eastern Microwave Inc.

Mets owner Doubleday Sports Inc. McCurn ruled that EMI and other satellite carriers were liable for royalty payments to program suppliers.

The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit in a reversal of the Central District Court decision on October 20 and the Supreme Court in a February 25, , decision refusing review of the case both concurred with EMI's arguments, holding that the company constituted as a "passive" carrier exempt from copyright fee payments—along with noting that EMI had only one available transponder for its extraterrestrial services and "naturally" sought to re-transmit "a marketable station"—under the Copyright Act's existing structure.

Outside of the teams that benefited from the broader exposure the telecasts gave them, Major League Baseball had long felt that superstations ate into their ability to gain revenue from agreements with national networks like ESPN.

A succession of three MLB Commissioners—which, among the position's responsibilities, handles negotiations for all national broadcasting contracts but is prohibited under the federal compulsory license law from controlling carriage of superstation telecasts—attempted to curb the telecasts or convince superstations to pay a higher fee for the national telecasts to varying success.

After Bowie Kuhn was appointed Commissioner in , team owners lobbied the league to place a tax on superstation telecasts; the proposed tax passed in a 24—2 vote with the Braves and the Cubs dissenting.

Other legal attempts by Kuhn and league management to reduce the superstation telecasts ultimately failed because of federal copyright laws that protected the broadcasts.

The tax was implemented in January , under successor Peter Ueberroth , with Ted Turner becoming the first MLB team owner to agree to the revenue-sharing plan, under which he made annual contributions to the league's Central Fund for the continued right to carry Braves baseball games over WTBS.

Concerns by many of Major League Baseball team owners that the share would be utilized to buoy the expansion of KTVT into a fourth national superstation a move that would have had to be undertaken by United Video as it was the station's satellite redistributor , American League team owners voted down Gaylord Broadcasting President Edward L.

Ueberroth would invoke a "best interests of baseball" clause on February 8 to approve the sale and associated broadcast contract with KTVT, which required Gaylord Broadcasting to pay re-transmission fees for games that the station televised outside of its six-state cable footprint.

President George W. Bush , real estate developer H. Bert Mack and investor Frank L. Morsani in April Ueberroth's successor, Fay Vincent , took a more hard-line approach against baseball telecasts shown over superstations.

During his two-year tenure as league commissioner, he tried to introduce contract language in local broadcast agreements that would allow a team to terminate the contract if broadcasts were re-transmitted "by any means" to more than , homes outside the team's territory, launched a petition to the FCC to redefine how its non-duplication rules constitute a "network program" to force cable systems to blackout superstation-licensed live sports broadcasts, and asked Congress for the repeal the compulsory copyright license and the inclusion of an amendment to the Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of that would force superstations to enforce blackouts of sporting events if a conflict occurred with a local telecast of the same game.

The latter amendment spurred an on-air campaign by Turner Broadcasting, which saw responses, mostly opposed to the proposed legislation, by more than 17, viewers.

Tribune staunchly opposed the proposed realignment, filing a breach of contract lawsuit accusing Vincent of overstepping his authority in ordering the realignment and arguing it would dilute existing team rivalries.

District Judge Suzanne B. Conlon issued a preliminary injunction in favor of Tribune and the Cubs on July 23, , six weeks prior to an motion of no confidence against Vincent among team owners on September 4.

The NBA also undertook actions to limit superstation telecasts of the league's games. The conspiracy and antitrust lawsuit filed by the co-plaintiffs in the United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois on October 16, , alleged that the game limit was aimed at "phas[ing] out such superstations telecasts entirely in increments of five games each year over the next five years," a separate plan proposed by Stern that was never voted upon by NBA team owners.

The NBA contended the restriction was exempt from antitrust law under a provision of the Sports Broadcasting Act of , which was deemed in later rulings to only be applicable to the sale or transfer a national game package to a television network and not those involving individual teams.

Supreme Court on November 5, , [] a Seventh Circuit judiciary panel overturned their ruling on September 10, , [] which forced WGN-TV — which had been allowed to air at least 30 Bulls telecasts over its local and national feeds between the —93 and —96 seasons per agreement between the lawsuit parties — to relegate the 35 Bulls games it was scheduled to air during the —97 season exclusively to the Chicago area signal.

TCI, now defunct cited the national restrictions on the Bulls as partly being behind its December decision to remove the WGN national feed from most of its systems throughout the country, affecting around 3.

From the —98 season thereafter, the number of games permitted to air on the superstation feed increased to 15 per year.

Even though superstations remained reasonably popular among cable and satellite subscribers, in no small part because of team-based sports broadcasts, various changes to the television industry beginning in the s—especially the proliferation of cable-originated program services and the resultant increase in original programming produced by many cable channels—as well as existing distant signal policies—such as the syndication exclusivity rules—precipitated the decline in their viability.

Paul , KSHB-TV channel 41, now an NBC affiliate in Kansas City and WKBD-TV channel 50, now a CW owned-and-operated station in Detroit —that continued to maintain reasonable out-of-market distribution after the March copyright royalty increase had terminated their carriage agreements with cable providers beyond their home markets because of the presence of local independent stations that were able to serve as prospective Fox affiliates in many of the areas within the imported stations' remaining distribution footprint.

Additional decline in the availability of intrastate superstations came in the mids, when many of the remaining regional superstations let their carriage agreements expire or terminated them outright amid local network affiliation shuffles that caused stations such as KTVT, KSTW and KPHO-TV channel 5, now a CBS affiliate in Phoenix taking on affiliations with one of the Big Three networks ABC, CBS or NBC , as contractual and federal restrictions prevented them from maintaining regional distribution upon becoming major network affiliates.

In fact, in December , Time Warner permitted Tribune Broadcasting and United Video to have WGN-TV—which initially had intended to maintain a limited, if any, relationship with the network—act as a de facto national feed for The WB to cover smaller and mid-sized markets where extra time was needed for the network to fill absences in local affiliate coverage.

Station management had expressed concerns over the potential negative impacts fulfilling commitments to the network's soon-to-be-expanded program offerings would have on its sports broadcast rights and, by association, its national distribution; Time Warner rectified those issues by agreeing to reduce the network's initial schedule to one night per week from two in exchange for leasing airtime on the WGN national feed.

The downside of the Paramount decision was that, from January until over-the-air digital multicasting became viable in the first half of the s, it left most or all UPN programming unavailable in some mid-sized and most smaller markets where the network was not able, at least initially, to gain even secondary affiliate clearances.

WWOR—although it technically never gave up its superstation status—ceased distributing a national cable feed on December 31, , a move made by Advance Entertainment Corporation which assumed ownership of corporate cousin Eastern Microwave Inc.

To the consternation of many cable systems because of how it marketed the action, weeks before the WWOR EMI Service was to be discontinued, Discovery Networks quickly purchased the feed's satellite transponder slot from Advance Entertainment to expand distribution of the fledgling Animal Planet network.

About Because of this, select cable providers picked up the NPS feed to serve as a default UPN programming source in markets where no local UPN affiliate existed, either due to the lack of a standalone fifth or sixth secular commercial station for an exclusive affiliation — particularly through the loss of affiliate clearances to The WB, as was the case in certain markets affected by that network's agreement with the Sinclair Broadcast Group — or the lack of a secondary clearance with an existing commercial network station.

Upon undertaking the operational conventions of a traditional basic cable service, the national channel—which, following a series of name alterations between and , was known at the time as TBS Superstation—began to collect subscriber fees and, as it was now effectively exempt from the Copyright Act's signal modification restrictions, began offering systems the ability to lease advertising time to participating providers for the sale and insertion of local commercials.

The TBS cable channel, however, retained the WTBS signal as its originating feed and continued to simulcast almost all of the programming seen in the Atlanta market except for Atlanta-targeted advertisements, and customary weekend morning blocks of public affairs and syndicated educational programs intended to fulfill FCC public service and Children's Television Act requirements that were shown exclusively on WTBS.

The former Atlanta broadcast feed concurrently changed its call letters to WPCH-TV rebranding as "Peachtree TV" and began targeting its programming exclusively toward its home market, limiting its distribution within North America outside the Atlanta market to Canadian television providers that were already receiving the station prior to the TBS split.

The separation of TBS from its founding Atlanta parent left the WGN national feed — which became known as Superstation WGN in November and then as WGN America in May — as the last remaining superstation to be transmitted nationwide through all multichannel television distribution methods, whereas the other six remaining superstations are available only through satellite television.

Into the s , WGN America increasingly relied less on WGN-TV program simulcasts as fewer syndicated programs seen on the Chicago feed were able to be given national "full-signal" clearances, opting to plug holes in the schedule with more "SyndEx-proof" syndicated programs.

Programming shared between the national and local WGN feeds in later years consisted of a limited number of syndicated programs and selected feature films; most Chicago Cubs and White Sox baseball and select Bulls basketball games; select local news and public affairs programs; and certain local and syndicated specials.

The channel also chose not to carry newscasts and Chicago-originated lifestyle and entertainment programs that WGN-TV added to its schedule as the station began to better emphasize news and other locally produced content starting in Through this conversion, WGN America began phasing out all local news and sports programming simulcast with the Chicago signal, concluding with the removal of its morning and midday newscasts from WGN America's lineup on December 15, WKAQ's signal became available in the mainland United States in , when Telemundo Group converted its Telemundo Internacional cable channel—which began as a cable news channel under the name Telenoticias in —into a national feed of the station, branded as Telemundo Puerto Rico ; the feed is available in the contiguous United States through select cable providers and via satellite on Dish Network and DirecTV.

LIN Television Corp. Since its inception in , Dish Network has offered an a la carte tier of all five aforementioned mainland superstations to subscribers outside of the stations' respective home markets.

The tier continued to be sold for many years following the passage of the Satellite Home Viewer Improvement Act, despite concerns expressed by representatives for former Dish parent EchoStar that prevalent program blackouts caused by requests from local broadcast licensees made under SHVIA syndication exclusivity and sports blackout provisions could force it to drop the five mainland superstations from its lineup.

Indeed, such requests have led Dish Network to stop offering one or more of the stations in some markets in recent years, culminating in Dish ceasing all future sales of the superstation tier on September 19, A grandfathering waiver exists for subscribers who purchased the tier prior to the cut-off date, allowing them to continue receiving the superstation package barring they ever cancel their subscription to the tier or to Dish Network.

Canada does not have any television stations that operate as "superstations" in the traditional construct of the term. The closest Canadian equivalents to the "superstation" model are the television system , to some extent basically acting as a smaller, less-centralized form of the network model , and, moreso, the independent station the number of which had grown to some extent with the demise of E!

As a result of their early availability, which predated the existence of most Canadian specialty channels , these stations — the former two of which are now owned by Corus Entertainment and the latter by Channel Zero — continue to maintain a superstation-type status on analog cable in many smaller Canadian communities as well as on border-area cable systems in the United States such as Buffalo — Niagara Falls, New York , Burlington, Vermont , and Bellingham, Washington.

John's, Newfoundland and Labrador use slogans referring to each as a "superstation," though neither station has any special regulatory status at present conferring that title.

Neither CHCH nor CJON holds a formal network affiliation, although the latter which identifies under the "NTV" brand carries news and entertainment programming from Global and news programming from CTV, and both stations carry programming from the country's only syndicator, the religious and secular family service yes TV.

In both cases, only a limited amount of non-local programming is carried on the online feed. Moreover, multichannel television providers within Canada are able to distribute American television stations in their digital package, regardless of whether they are superstations or affiliates of the five major U.

Under CRTC rules first implemented on October 26, to bolster domestic programming services particularly both independently-owned and specialty services by requiring providers to "link" U.

TBS was removed from the Canadian market when it became a cable-exclusive channel in the U. WPCH is one of only two superstations eligible under the Commission's foreign distribution list, along with WGN-TV as a result of its programming separation from its WGN America companion service in December , that is no longer distributed in the United States as a regional or national superstation.

Some providers, including MTS TV and Cogeco Cable , continued to carry the superstation feed afterward in place of or in conjunction with the Chicago signal.

Much as is the case in Canada, almost all of the commercial and non-commercial television stations in Mexico are available on satellite to be carried on cable and other direct-to-home DTH television providers within the country.

However, no station had equal transmission nationwide: certain laws, such as the electoral law, forbid television stations from broadcasting advertisements particularly, political campaign ads originating from other states or regions within the country.

Like with fellow United Video-distributed superstation WGN-TV in that same market during its early years as a cable superstation, other than some limited revenue from a scant number of national advertisers, WFMT earned no extra revenue from its expanded distribution.

Very few stations actually distribute themselves through C-band, as the station's audio can now more easily be dialed in through either ISDN lines, or listened to via an audio stream over the internet if the station offers such a service.

This is the case with several stations in Mexico, as radio and television broadcasting in that country is very nationalized and most local stations merely act as hour-a-day affiliates of a national network.

Some local radio stations are, or have been distributed on satellite radio throughout the United States, and Canada in select cases.

Stations that have previously maintained distribution over satellite radio have included WLTW KDIS AM, now KRDC in Pasadena, California serving the Los Angeles market converted to superstation status in , a byproduct of Radio Disney — for which it serves as the children's radio network's flagship outlet, and became its only analog terrestrial broadcaster as a result — refocusing its efforts primarily on mobile distribution after drawing down its remaining affiliates through both the sales or shutdowns of its owned-and-operated stations and the format conversions of terrestrial affiliates not owned by The Walt Disney Company.

Radio Disney began to reinstate conventional terrestrial radio coverage in through brokered arrangements over HD Radio subchannels, albeit with a drastically reduced affiliate base than it had up until the early s.

Prior to CBS Corporation 's sale of its radio properties to Entercom , in , CBS Radio began utilizing HD Radio technology to relay the signals of its major-market music-formatted stations to other markets around the country.

For instance, KFRG In many cases where radio stations distribute outside their home market, the local stations make some concessions, such as replacement of local advertisements with either national advertising or a bed of production music that plays over commercial breaks.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the UK radio overnight sustaining service, see The Superstation. For the Orcadian commercial radio station, see The Superstation Orkney.

Not to be confused with Superstition. Limitations on exclusive rights: Secondary transmissions of distant television programming by satellite".

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The New York Times Company. April 30, October 24, October 26, April 25, May 23, Retrieved May 6, — via World Radio History.

February 19, May 27, December 23, July 10, December 14, June 24, May 8, February 7, August 25, December 22, October 4, United States Copyright Office.

Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved January 11, August 29, July 23, July 30, July 28, September 29, October 27, November 24, July 6, January 18, May 4, September 7, October 12, August 16, September 21, November 22, March 21, Retrieved May 6, May 2, Chicago Tribune.

Tribune Publishing. Los Angeles Times. Times Mirror Company. May 18, FCC says no more. We all make mistakes. And hopefully this little guide will help you keep an eye out for the worst of the fakes.

Remember that story about loggers accidentally cutting down the world's oldest tree? It went viral in environmentalist circles, but turned out to be a fake put out by the "satire" site World News Daily Report.

The weird part is that the real story that it was clearly inspired by is actually better. But it's still not very good. Not very good at all. Did you see a story making its way through Facebook recently about the accused Boston bomber getting beaten up in prison?

Hilarious, right? Subway Restaurants might be obviously fake to some people. But there's always someone who thinks it's real.

Especially your aunt who already thinks fast food is a government-run conspiracy to keep the population docile.

Which it is, by the way. Makes you think. Look, it happens to the best of us. Unfortunately our good friends at Deadspin were recently taken in by a fake story from the Betoota Advocate.

The Olympics is not going to have 3-on-3 basketball. But why not? Sillier things have been Olympic sports in the past. Frankly I'm just waiting for the day when I uncritically re-report some story from a fake news site.

It's bound to happen. It's only a matter of time. Let's call it Actually's Law. But yeah, the Betoota Advocate is generally not funny, which is part of the problem.

Admittedly, the name Lightly Braised Turnip is kind of a fun play on the world's most famous and actually funny fake news site, The Onion.

But far too many of LBT's stories are clearly just meant to deceive people for viral shares. Humor is subjective, so I don't doubt that there are plenty of people who take pleasure from reading The Borowitz Report.

And more power to them. But there are way too many stories that are simply too plausible, which often leads them to go viral because there's not a single joke in the story.

Yeah, that's pretty much true. Is there anything in that headline that strikes you as implausible or funny? Perhaps The Borowitz Report is an indictment of modern politics in the most crushing way.

Maybe Borowitz is using his platform as a kind of long con that ultimately makes us realize we live in a world that's simply beyond parody.

But for the time being, it seems to serve primarily as something to get passed around and mistaken for real news. The post is so incredibly absurd and infantile that I suddenly think I might not be smart enough to understand it.

Is The Borowitz Report working on an entirely new level? Is it so bad that it's good? Probably not.

Superstationcom and Yahoo! News/Reuters Saying the country could face an "incident which threatens our existence' the government of Germany has told its. Die von Hal Turner beschriebene Gefahr ist real, muß aber so nicht eintreffen. Kurzwelle ( MHz) und 95,1 FM in New York City, “SuperStation Allies of this "Russian propaganda" blacklist site include Bellingcat (which works with Atlantic Council) & Interpreter (project of RFE/RL).

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Saudi-Arabien sagte auch, die Bewegung würde 18 Tage dauern. Dies ist gewollt. Wer hat das entschieden?

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